Life sciences will give you a solid basis of factual knowledge and new ways to look at the world. From health care to the environment to controversies over regenerative medicine and genetic testing, the life sciences touch every area of our existence. While significant academic improvement has been achieved in the past few decades, there is still a lot that we don’t know.

An understanding of life

The life sciences help us better comprehend the cycle of existence, as well as degeneration and illness. This is significant in and of itself, but biological sciences hold even more promise. They serve as a base for new industries and the shift to a greener future, bringing in additional employment, services, and benefits to society, notably in the health industry.

Reveals every area

Reveals every area

The seas, the land, the air, the plains, the arctic, the woods, and the hills are all explored by life science. Understanding how life is meant in our world might help you appreciate the world we live in and how important it is to safeguard it.

Interdisciplinary advantage

Researchers from numerous disciplines offer their insight into the field of life sciences, making it an interdisciplinary science. Scholars in the life sciences create fresh understanding by integrating the latest study in academic subjects like medicine and biology with new, improved analytical tools from other fields of science and mathematics.

Social science and humanities fields, in contrast to these, are employed to study life sciences from a social point of view. Collaborating between disciplines can lead to innovative and distinctive responses to challenges for which a single technique and one topic discipline alone cannot provide answers.

Value of creation

Improved understanding emerging from investments in biological sciences will help to value creation, allowing to focus on areas other than oil and gas.

Bioeconomics is a term used to explain this new way of creating wealth. Fields of expertise that span beyond specialties and the four critical agricultural, marine, health, and green industry industries will constantly support one another in an area. The human medical study will be conducted to enhance fish growth, and biological understanding will be used to advance medical research.

Concluding thoughts

Life science is a vast area of study that tries to address some of humanity’s most fundamental problems. It looks at anything from the ocean’s surface to microorganisms that control your digestive system. It examines how we dwell, where we continue living, and how we may improve our lives.

Molecular life science is a quick-growing interdisciplinary field that promises many career prospects. It is the integration of the various branches of science like regular science, applied science and social science. There are many challenges that are faced by the educations when it comes to the education of molecular life science. The educators have to be abreast with the ever-growing challenges in this field. They have to adapt to this field, to keep up with the various advancements in the industry. There are also various methods that can be utilized to tune the necessity and the expectations of the students.

Funding of the research

Funding of the research

The most important challenge to this field is the funding of the research by the European bodies. There is a major requirement for educators for being good scientists. It requires the raise of the awareness among the various funding European bodies like the FEBS.

Making the study strong

There are many fewer people who hold PhD in this industry in the current times. The situation is similar all over the world. These professionals must be prepared to carry out their practice in the international states.

The solution

The process of the intercultural dimensions and the integrating international dimensions would help in the internationalization of the molecular life science space. It will help the students be globally ready to take on their careers. Internationalization would help prepare the students for global citizenship while making the students competitive in the global marketplace. It enhances the agenda of the research and makes the world better understanding

The areas for internationalization

The various areas for internationalization are global engagement, graduate education, international students, undergraduate students, education abroad, and human and financial resources.

Internationalization tools

Internationalization tools

There are various tools for internationalization like the foreign languages, areas studies program, long-distance education, composing agreements, studying abroad, cross-cultural events and the various outreach programs.

Progress on internationalization

Molecular life science is quickly emerging as an up-and-coming field in the field of research and practice. There are many meta-analyses on the way and the topics are constantly evolving and shifting. There are many steps that can be taken like the students, curriculum, faculty and staff resources, policies and practices, engagement with the various institutions, co-curriculum and campus, organizational structure and personnel. With the various sources, all the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities can be determined to find out about the various areas of growth for the different categories like the attitudes, skills and knowledge.

There has been a long history in the field of biology where there have been many discoveries. There have been many advancements in this field and the various mechanisms that have taken the science of biology to a whole new level. Here are some breakthroughs in the world of science.


Already the theories by Gregor Mendel, Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace are well known by everyone. But this spur of growth lasted for 170 years and helped in the discovery of DNA in the time of the 1950s. These are the founding factors that are the complete groundwork in the field of research.



These were discovered by Alexander Flemming upon discovering Penicillium mould spores. He discovered that these could kill the staphylococcal bacteria in a petri dish. The goal of this research was to prevent anaerobic infections from being life-threatening. This was the first step to a large amount of research, leading to saving the lives of the people.

Gel Electrophoresis

There are no labs without the gel rigs with the humming sound of the electrical current separating DND or RNA. This is one of the most remarkable discoveries. It was first discovered by Arne Tiselius in the year 1931 and all of the work was performed to form these gel matrices into discrete bands. It was only in the 1960s that scientists were able to identify DNA using it.

HeLa Cell Discovery

HeLa Cell Discovery

The cells of cervical cancer which killed Henrietta Lacks in 1951 were the benchmark in cancer research and knowledge. These HeLa cells made the research easier, repeatable and robust. This facilitated the first polio vaccine in the year 1952. Without this, the research would have been much slower.

The Structure of DNA

After the discovery of evolution and inheritance, the discovery of DNA became well known with Rosalind Franklin’s double helix. Later, James Watson’s and Francis Crick’s models arrived of the double helix. Now, it is common knowledge in the field of biology.

DNA Polymerase

DNA Polymerase

Arthur Kornberg changed the lab with the world of molecular microbiology. With this, the scientists were finally able to synthesize the various sequences of the DNA into an existing strand. This became the bedrock of molecular biology in relation to transformation, cloning and sequencing.

Reverse transcriptase

It was discovered by Howard Termina and David Baltimore. It led to the synthesis of the cDHa from the RNA and it was able to bridge the various gaps that existed in the field of biology. It helps achieve a better understanding of the retroviruses and antiviral drugs.

The life cycle of plans is like the humans and the other animals. It is described in various stages, from the start of its life to the end, where it becomes the mature plant from a seed. But not all plants are able to produce seeds. Some like the mosses and fern produce cells called spores. These do not produce seeds.


This is the first step in the cycle of germination. From the outside, there is a tough layer that protects it. It is known as the outer coat. But there is a baby plant growing inside, which is the embryo. The embryo consists of a root, shoot and leaves. The germination requires water, warmth which is the ideal temperature and the location has to be suitable, which is the soil.



The next stage is germination. The seed is dormant before it germinates. For germination to occur, there have to be some suitable conditions like the right location, temperature and water, so that the nutrients aptly reach it. When these conditions are met, the seed would sprout. For it is the roots that grow, in the downward direction. The hair texture on the root absorbs the water and the various other minerals from the soil. This process is called germination.


A young plant grows post-germination. It requires sunlight and grows towards it. After that, it would need a consistent supply of nutrients, sunlight, water and air to grow and survive. The process of photosynthesis grows the seedling into a complete plant.

Adult Plant

After the plant becomes mature, the plant grows into a flower and the seeds are produced. Then the mature plant would have the stem, flower, fruits, roots, and leaves. The reproductive part of the plant is the flowers. They make the seeds, which turn them into plants. There are many different parts of the plant like the pistil, stamen, petals, sepals, etc.


In the process of the plant life cycle, pollination is an important step. The pollens are produced by flowers and transferred by the various pollinators like butterflies, insects, bees and wind. Whenever the various insects and the butterfly get on the flower, the pollen sticks to their legs. Then the pollen transfer occurs.

Seed dispersal

In the last step, the seeds might get scattered to new places and there is a new life cycle that begins. These seeds are spread by water, wind and animals.

In conclusion

These are the steps that are in the stages of the plant. It is quite a journey to its complete growth.

When the COVID-19 pandemic broke out, the life sciences industry proved to play an essential role. To deal with the global problem, conventional rivals teamed up to speed up design and creating the world’s fastest new vaccine. Ministries, medical institutions, funders, clinical services, and organizations are now collaborating with the pharmaceutical industry to enable extensive dissemination and management.

Redesigning workplace

Redesigning workplace

Both our private and work COVID-19 have forever impacted lives. Places of work are being redesigned from virtual offices to new sorts of off-site cooperation with life sciences enterprises operating from distant places.

Organizations in the life sciences sector are increasingly focused on their workers’ particular requirements and fostering health. This increase in connectedness and the blurring of physical borders are broadening the talent pool and increasing opportunities to develop skills.

Digitalization of health care and pharma

In 2020, business financing for digital health care will have expanded dramatically, reaching a new high of several billion globally. One fact is inevitable: online care, with the aid of electronic health technologies, can transform health care access and provide a better patient quality.

Technology has resulted in more new argument platforms, electronic pharmacy installations, and quick and efficient healthcare access in the life sciences industry.

Meeting physicians online

As pharma business models alter, it’s more important than ever for corporations to concentrate on the requirements of healthcare practitioners. Even though doctors’ use of digital environments has grown, firms have held much more virtual interactions with doctors throughout the world.

Nevertheless, in the later, even this adjustment will be susceptible to every country’s post-COVID regulations. In the post-pandemic era, businesses will also focus on expanding benefits through online platforms to train health care practitioners.

Different types of collaborations and clinical trials

COVID-19 is thought to have sped up the pharmaceutical industry’s digitalization by many years. During the outbreak, life sciences companies showed enhanced adaptability, faster time to market, and efficiency.

In less than a year, the two innovative COVID-19 vaccines were designed, examined, and approved. As a result, businesses are reevaluating and challenging their existing procedures to improve efficiency. They’re also looking for new ways to collaborate to succeed.

Furthermore, with telehealth and portable medical services, organizations are turning toward digital tests and monitoring systems to include more people in their research.

Advancement of humanity

Advancement of humanity

Being a decent, responsible business and managing with meaning to advance humankind will be a critical aspect of overall business achievement in 2021. Many businesses saw fast shifts in their image during the epidemic, but none more so than the life sciences industry.

With the industry on the rise, it will be interesting to observe how organizations can increase trust and create positive progress.

This past summer one of my good friends managed to secure an internship at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes conducting biomedical research. He was thrilled at the opportunity for career exploration and mentorship at such an exciting institution. However, upon one of the first interactions with his mentor, my friend was told perhaps the most dismal thing a prospective researcher could hear: that there was no such thing as a work-life balance in science. I was stunned and rather dejected to hear this from my friend, particularly given my own interests in pursuing this profession. Are scientists doomed to a dismal life in a lab and nothing more? The issue of maintaining a work-life balance is one that faces much of the modern world, and the scientific community is no exception. I hope to provide a different perspective from that which seems to run rampant among research scientists and PhD students and shed light on the root of this problem. It seems that just as my friend’s mentor set out this expectation, so too do many of the individuals an impressionable grad student and fledgling researcher might look up to. It is the responsibility of mentors and students alike to shy away from the perspective of all-work-no-play and end the self-perpetuating cycle.

With all of the students I have talked to, I noticed a commonality: they are stressed out of their experiment-addled minds.

I have interacted with numerous graduate students across a wide swath of scientific fields, ranging from physics to geochemistry, microbiology to cognitive science. With all of the students I have talked to, I noticed a commonality: they are stressed out of their experiment-addled minds. It makes sense that PhD students would be stressed: graduate school is full of cluelessness, misunderstanding, and the threat of failed experiments. Any scientist would tell you that failure is a crucial and unavoidable element of the process of discovery, but to a PhD student failure is considered inevitable That stress is compounded by long hours spent working on said objective to try to make headway in order to finish their thesis. The social isolation of science-related graduate school does not improve the situation either, as the graduate students I’ve spoken with see each other as colleagues rather than as friends. I say this not to discourage anyone, but to raise attention to the situation that future scientists are confronted with daily. Perhaps science really is all work and no play, and if you don’t like it, you shouldn’t become a scientist. If this mindset is carried by most graduate students through their years developing a thesis, it is likely to stay in their mind as key to sustaining a career in science. It is the duty of the university and investigators to help the students they support realize that while they are making a big commitment to earn this degree, it doesn’t have to be at the stake of their personal well-being. However, perhaps the lack of work-life balance in the lives of student researchers isn’t seen by their supervisors, as it is possible that they too are living the same lifestyle.

From the Primary Investigators leading university research that I have spoken with, it seems that there is a vicious cycle within the world of academic research today. Many scientists measure success by how many publications they have authored. But in order to get publications one needs to carry out well-founded, novel research. In order to carry out good research one needs funding. And in order to get funding, one needs thorough and persuasive grant proposals which require previous research. The chicken-and-egg cycle is never-ending, and it seems that the ever-ebbing tide of this game rewards those who put the most time into their profession. It is not a far stretch to suggest that if a scientist wants to be successful in the world of research, he or she must put all other facets of life on hold.

The problem with this whole discussion is that work is seen as separate from and opposite to life, as the way to make a living, but it doesn’t have to be that way.

On the other hand, this may be simply a matter of perspective. Maybe what my friend’s mentor was trying to say was there is no such thing as a work-life balance in science because when you are truly conducting scientific inquiry, it shouldn’t be “work”. The problem with this whole discussion is that work is seen as separate from and opposite to life, as the way to make a living, but it doesn’t have to be that way. One thing that I have been told by many people that I’ve talked to is that they couldn’t imagine doing anything else. Sure, there may be ups and downs, and even certain modes of thinking which should be revised, but it all comes down to whether or not you love what you do. Does an artist see his creative endeavors as a burden to personal development? Artists create art because they need it to feel fulfilled, and so too might scientists discover, investigate, and create for the very same reason.

At the end of the day it comes down to electing to pursue that which we really want to pursue. Earning a PhD is a commitment and an achievement worthy of recognition, but it shouldn’t be the only thing that defines an individual. Even if we love science and see it as integral to our lives, that is no excuse for neglecting other aspects of who we are. We have the agency to decide what is important to us. If we decide to have a family and enjoy other interests, we should not chastise ourselves for neglecting “science”. Conversely, if someone decides to pursue their passion of science, we shouldn’t see that as a negative, as it is their own individual experience of happiness. The point is that it is not a work-life balance but simply a life balance, and one must choose how to live that life and what priorities are most important.

Stepping into the “real world” is scary in any profession, and this seems to be the root of the fears of the average PhD student. The prospect of having to balance career success with a meaningful family life is terrifying. Our generation is afraid of the changes that coming of age brings.

Stepping into the “real world” is scary in any profession, and this seems to be the root of the fears of the average PhD student. The prospect of having to balance career success with a meaningful family life is terrifying. Our generation is afraid of the changes that coming of age brings. Undergraduates look up to the great men and women that have gone before us to earn their PhDs and hope to be as successful as them one day, but the road leading there is quite intimidating. At times, science may seem like all work and no play. What the scientific community really needs is not a break, but rather a change of perspective. Yes, financial comfort is an important goal which people in every profession aspire to— but this shouldn’t be at the expense of personal well being. If we establish a culture where scientists see the very idea of scientific investigation as success in itself, then perhaps a career in science wouldn’t be so anxiety-inducing and researchers might be more able to focus on scientific exploration. If the definition of success in the scientific community is reevaluated to be more oriented to whether one performs his work with passion and pride, then aspiring scientists may find that there will rarely have trouble with their work-life balance.

As social media’s presence in society has increased in the last decade or so, scientists and parents worry about the repercussions this technological influence may have on their children, as no other generation has yet experienced this. According to the Pew Research Center in 2018, 95% of 13 to 17 year-olds either own or have access to a smartphone, 72% use Instagram, and 41% use Snapchat. Many studies have shown that this accessibility can have serious effects on the mental health of children, and body image in young girls especially. When scrolling through various social media platforms such as Instagram, young girls and teens are subconsciously comparing themselves to the seemingly perfect bodies and lives of influencers and other celebrities.

In fact, a 2018 study found that interacting with attractive influencers’ social media accounts led to worsened body image in young women, but the pictures of family members did not have an effect on body image. Even more concerning, a study performed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute found that “approximately 40% of 9 and 10 year-old girls are already trying to lose weight.” This is largely a consequence of how the media in general has painted a picture of the “ideal” body type: tall, stick-thin women who have very few curves. In reality, this physique is unrealistic and potentially unhealthy for the vast majority, but one that many young girls chase after, as demonstrated by the rising presence of eating disorders in women and the usage of photo editing apps to alter one’s body to his or her satisfaction. Additionally, while the effect of social media is more pronounced in young girls and women, boys and young men are not immune either. Western views on the “ideal” body type for men has become a stronger, more muscular body, with an increased emphasis on fitness and working out.

Media portrayal of the “ideal” body type has led to a rise in eating disorders, especially in young girls and women. In fact, NHS Digital released data in 2018 that showed the number of hospital admissions due to eating disorders had doubled in six years, with 16,000 people admitted for some type of eating disorder in the United Kingdom over that time period. Additionally, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, hospital stays due to eating disorders in the United States increased 18% from 2000-2006, with 28,155 patients being treated. This increase coincides with the initial emergence of social media in the early 2000s.

This body dissatisfaction can affect other areas of your mental health as well, leading to lower self-esteem and even depression. A 2016 study conducted by Woods and Scott found that young adults with increased use of social media, experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the Royal Society for Public Health found that in addition to these effects of social media, loneliness and feelings of isolation were also consequences of cyberbullying. Young adults are not making real connections anymore, comparing themselves to strangers who are posting only the best parts of their lives, and their mental health is paying the price. Many of these effects are signs of social media addiction, which has become more widely recognized since the early 2000s. In fact, various treatment centers, such as Paradigm Malibu, have been established to help young adults battle their addictions. They provide them with various coping methods and both individual and family therapy to help them form a better relationship with social media and develop higher self esteem. These discoveries are extremely important and should demonstrate to society that it is time to start disconnecting from their phones and reconnecting with other people in order to regain feelings of self-worth, happiness, and attain an overall better quality of life.

Dr. John McDougall, a renowned physician known for his stance on preventative medicine through adopting a whole foods, plant-based diet, published a study demonstrating the efficacy of this diet. In an article titled, “Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: The McDougall Program cohort,” 1,615 participants, many of whom were overweight and had a history of illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, participated in a physician-monitored 10-day residential program. The participants were fed three meals a day that aligned with Dr. McDougall’s guidelines. All meals were served buffet-style and were based on complex carbohydrates such as rice, quinoa, oats, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and beans, with the addition of vegetables and fresh fruits. Such foods were strictly prepared without oil or animals-derived ingredients (meat, dairy, eggs). Minimal sugars and salts were used in the form of condiments. The macronutrients of Dr. McDougall’s diet regime are strictly less than 10% of daily calories from fat, 10% calories from plant-based protein, and 80% of calories from high-fiber carbohydrates in the form of whole starches.

The program included a cohort of educational staff: a medical doctor (McDougall himself), a registered dietitian, a psychologist, exercise coaches, and cooking instructors, all of whom supervised the the participants, who were allowed to eat “ad libitum” (i.e., as much as they wanted with no restrictions) until satiated. On the first day of the program, all participants underwent a physical examination and their baselines levels were recorded for the following biomarkers: weight, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. These measurements were recorded again on the seventh day of the program. These biomarkers were recorded again on the seventh day, and differences in values were analyzed to see if there were measurable reductions in health risks for the participants. These risks were assessed using The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association published guidelines for predicting a patient’s risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) within 10 years. Such a risk could be predicted only if the patient has the relevant factors of age, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes, and high blood pressure. ASCVD risks were calculated twice for the patients who fell under all the relevant factors, once on the first day as part of their baseline values, and again on the seventh day.

On the seventh day of the program, participants saw a statistically significant decrease in average cholesterol, weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Those who were the most overweight had the highest numbers for their baseline biomarkers, and saw a greater decrease in their numbers compared to participants whose baselines were in a healthy range. The median weight loss was 1.4 kg (3 pounds) in only seven days. The risk for ASCVD was reduced by an average of 2.00 percentage points among patients whose risk was elevated on the first day, as opposed to the general sample where the risk was reduced by 1.00 percentage points. Despite some limitations in the study, McDougall’s intensive, residential educational program demonstrates a potential low-cost approach to healthcare. A change from an animal-based to a plant-based diet improves people’s health in the short term and possibly long term. Most importantly, it bypasses expensive, current approaches to medicine such as prescription medication and major surgery.

The absolute greatest controversy in today’s agriculture industry is the production and sale of genetically modified crops, even despite the safe consumption of GM crops by hundreds of millions of people worldwide for over 15 years. The debate over these foods among everyday consumers and the push to carefully label GM products has stigmatized what has been identified in the scientific community as a potential solution to many of the world’s agricultural ailments. GM crops have been developed to alleviate everything from nutritional deficiencies to high cost of growing, but one of the greatest areas of potential for genetically modified crops is the role they play in combating the ever-increasing environmental stress of climate change. The growing problem of climate change makes biotechnology, like genetically modified crops, an important method for reducing existing environmental strains on agriculture, but also for ensuring that the people who live in regions most affected by climate change can continue to support themselves nutritionally and financially.

While climate change is a global issue, its effects are not felt equally among the world’s various populations. The major contributors to climate change have been the most industrialized nations of the world, but, according to a paper from the World Health Organization, “the greatest risks are to the poorest populations, who have contributed least to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.” The economies of underdeveloped nations rely even more heavily on agribusiness, thereby making climate change a serious economic issue, as well as a nutritional one. In 2017, the United Nations Climate Change Annual Report identified that nearly 84% of the economic consequences of drought affect the agricultural sector. Another report by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development predicted that water availability in the Middle East, Central Asia, and North and Southern Africa is projected to decline dramatically due to climate change and population growth in the next several decades. Furthermore, developing countries tend to rely on developed countries for advancements in agricultural technology; however, those advancements often do not address the specific economic and environmental needs of the developing countries. A huge economic gap separates the nations that cause climate change from the nations that most feel its effects, and, subsequently, those economically-limited nations tend to lack access to technology that would combat climate change effects.

The implementation of biotechnology offers farmers a host of solutions to the problems created by climate change. Several varieties of crops have been designed to include tolerance to heat, drought, and salinity (to combat rising sea levels), as well as to increase the speed of maturation to reduce the time of potential exposure to extreme weather. Additionally, scientists anticipate that global increases in temperatures could alter pest and disease pressures by shortening dormant periods, enhancing the speed of pest maturation, and increasing the resistance of pest populations to intervention by farmers. Biotechnology is essential to combat these environmental pressures at the present time, but we can also expect the need for this technology to increase significantly as the effects of climate change grow ever more severe.

Currently, certain developing nations are engaging biotechnology to assist their farming-dependent populations. Specifically, Uganda is thoroughly exploring the GM crop field by conducting research on banana, maize, cotton, and cassava. This research aims to promote resistance to bacterial wilt, drought, bollworms, herbicides, cassava mosaic disease, and cassava brown streak virus disease, all of which contribute to crop failure due to natural occurrence and climate change causes. Since 2008, the Ugandan government has invested in GM crops by training scientists, building biotechnology laboratories, and funding research into disease-resistant varieties of banana and cassava. Across the planet, over 15 million people are farming GM crops and most of these farmers are from developing nations including India, Burkina Faso, Egypt and South Africa.

However, GM crops not only benefit the farmers experiencing the effects of climate change, but also serve to combat climate change itself. GM crops have resulted in environmental benefits including reducing pesticide usage, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and bolstering non-food crop production, all of which decrease pesticide and fossil fuel consumption. Biotech crops have been engineered that allow for decreased usage of fertilizers, pesticides, and the associated equipment and the use of this technology has already lowered pesticide usage by 503 million kilograms (-8.8%). Increasing temperatures due to climate change also result in the proliferation and wider distribution of insects or other pests, thereby increasing the need for pesticides in farming. Not only do GM crops have the potential to be environmentally-friendly alternatives to pesticides, but they also help to break a cycle of pesticide use that begins and ends with increasing climate change. Additionally, the agriculture industry accounts for 10-12 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions and biotechnology has brought about a significant reduction in greenhouse gases since the inception of their use. In 2012 alone, the reduction in greenhouse gas emission due to GM crops was equivalent to removing 11.88 million cars from the roads. Finally, while the bulk of GM crops include food products, there are several uses for crops outside of the food industry, including timber, paper, and chemicals for use in biofuels. The development and usage of these GM materials similarly encourage a reduction in waste, greenhouse gas production, and other historical climate change causes.

Genetically modified crops have been a controversial part of the agriculture industry for years, but these crops offer a multifaceted solution to many causes and effects of climate change. They also offer farmers in developing nations an inexpensive way to combat the effects of climate change. The avoidance of harmless genetically modified foods has developed into a class symbol for the wealthiest members of industrialized nations in Europe and North America; however, farmers in the developing nations who have been hit hardest by climate change should not go without this technology for the sake of prejudice against GM crops. Biotechnology has already proven a huge boon to the climate change-stricken agriculture industry and will continue to prove essential as the effects of climate change worsen.

In a world of modern medicine it seems as if virtually any organ can be transplanted from one human to another, including hearts, livers, lungs, and more. Dr. Sergio Canavero plans to take these established and complex procedures to the next level. This Italian surgeon has devised a plan for the first ever human head transplantation.

Dr. Sergio Canavero plans to take these established and complex procedures to the next level. This Italian surgeon has devised a plan for the first ever human head transplantation.

Dr. Canavero announced Project HEAVEN-GEMINI in July 2013 and has finally found a willing participant, Valery Spiridonov. Spiridonov is a Russian man living with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, also known as type-one spinal muscular atrophy. Spiridonov is confined to a wheelchair and can only perform very minimal muscular movements. Although he is anxious about the radical procedure, Spiridonov is prepared to accept the risks of this new-age technology because he does not “really have many choices.” Most patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease do not live past the age of twenty, and so thirty-year-old Spiridonov feels privileged to have survived this long and will do anything to improve his current quality of life.

The procedure itself, scheduled for December 2017, will be incredibly extensive. Dr. Canavero expects the actual head transplantation to require about one hundred surgeons and last approximately thirty-six hours. The donor head will be severed with an extremely sharp blade to minimize possible damage, and then the donor spinal cord will be attached to Spiridonov’s head. Following the surgery, Spiridonov will be in an induced coma for three to four weeks, giving the spinal cord ample time to form proper nerve connections. Dr. Canavero estimates that Spiridonov will be able to walk within one year of the procedure.

Many scientists and doctors believe Canavero is out of his mind, mostly due to the fact that Canavero is heavily relying on the research of Dr. Robert White, who performed a monkey head transplant in 1970. The monkey survived for only eight days.

As with any newfangled and unconventional idea, this head transplant procedure has received plenty of criticism. Many scientists and doctors believe Canavero is out of his mind, mostly due to the fact that Canavero is heavily relying on the research of Dr. Robert White, who performed a monkey head transplant in 1970. The monkey survived for only eight days. Certain scientists believe White’s work is outdated. According to Canavero, however, with the technology of today and his team’s determination, “We can already do this.” Project HEAVEN-GEMINI is scheduled to occur relatively soon, but a surgical center for this risky procedure has yet to be found. The doctor hopes to find a medical center in the United States, but if this does not come to fruition, he has his sights set on China.

A head transplant is indeed a highly complex and drastic medical procedure, but a heart transplant was just as unbelievable no less than fifty years ago. It is possible that Dr. Canavero will become the face of a new branch of medicine that will remarkably improve the countless lives of those who have lost all hope to ever walk again.